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Ecological Framework of Canada
Ecoregions of Canada


This ecoregion covers the southern section of the Omineca Mountains and the eastern ranges of the Skeena Mountains. The mean annual temperature for the area is approximately 1.5°C with a summer mean of 11.5°C and a winter mean of -10°C. Mean annual precipitation ranges 500-700 mm. This ecoregion is a vertically stratified complex of ecosystems, ranging from subboreal vegetation, consisting of trembling aspen, balsam poplar, paper birch, lodgepole pine, and black and white spruce; to extensive subalpine forests of Engelmann and white spruce, and alpine fir. Alpine tundra vegetation consists of low-growing heather, heath, sedge, and mountain avens. The Omineca Mountains form a complex belt of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and massive crystalline rocks. The Skeena Mountains, composed of folded, Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments and volcanic strata, are similar in general elevation. Both ranges have peaks which reach about 2400 m asl. Dystric Brunisolic and Gray Luvisolic soils dominate in the region's montane and subalpine zones. Brunisolic and Regosolic soils are present in alpine sections. Isolated patches of permafrost occur in the northwestern portion of the region. Characteristic wildlife includes moose, woodland caribou, black and grizzly bear, beaver, wolf, red fox, marten, hare, and grouse in warmer, forested sections; and mountain goat on the more rugged subalpine and alpine sections. Land use ranges from forest harvesting in montane and subalpine zones while mineral exploration, hunting, recreation, and tourism activities take place throughout the ecoregion. The main communities are Germansen Landing and Mackenzie. The population of the ecoregion is approximately 6100.

This ecoregion is part of the Montane Cordillera ecozone.