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Ecological Framework of Canada
Ecoregions of Canada


This ecoregion extends between Kingston and Brockville with the majority of the ecoregion existing within the Adirondacks area of upper New York state. The ecoregion is characterized by warm summers and cold winters with monthly precipitation being evenly distributed throughout the year. The mean annual temperature is approximately 4.5°C. The mean summer temperature is 16°C and the mean winter temperature is -7°C. The mean annual precipitation ranges 700-800 mm. The dominant land cover is mixed forest with species common to the Mixedwood Plains and Boreal Shield ecozones. Forest vegetation is characterized by sugar maple, eastern hemlock, and red oak. Pioneer species include white pine, paper birch, and trembling aspen. Moist sites are characterized by yellow birch, white elm, and red maple with slippery elm, black ash, and white cedar occurring in depressions and near streams. Drier sites contain red oak, and white and red pine. The region is underlain by carbonate-rich, Palaeozoic bedrock, which contrasts it with the acidic bedrock found in the balance of the Precambrian Shield to the north. The landscape is a complex mix of bedrock outcrops and deeper marine and lacustrine clay deposits. Gleysolic soils on the fine-textured deposits and Humo-Ferric Podzolic soils on the coarse-textured deposits are codominant. Significant inclusions are Fibrisol soils found in depressions distributed throughout the ecoregion. Characteristic wildlife includes white-tailed deer, snowshoe hare, coyote, red and grey squirrel, and chipmunk. Bird species include the cardinal, wood thrush, screech owl, mourning dove, green heron, pileated and red-bellied woodpecker, and wood and American black duck. Mixed farming and dairy are the dominant farming systems, and major crops include grains, corn, and hay. Other significant land uses include urban development, recreation and tourism. Major communities include Gananoque and Mallorytown. The population of the ecoregion is approximately 18 500.

This ecoregion is part of the Mixedwood Plains ecozone.